Medical Journal of Malaysia

MJM, Vol 70 Supplement 1 September 2015

Access of antenatal healthcare among non-citizens at government Maternal and Child Health (MCH) clinics, Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur in 2013

Chia SY, Shanthi V,. Zaini A, Bibi Suriati, Normala H

State Health Department of Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur & Putrajaya


Introduction: Routine antenatal care service is provided for all mothers including non-citizens seeking this service at government clinics. In Klang Valley there are about five clinics having more than 15% of non-citizens seeking antenatal care. This study was carried out to assess usage of antenatal services by non-citizens and to identify the common risk factors.

Method: Retrospective data was collected from antenatal card KIK/1(b)/96 of non-citizens registered in 2013 from government MCH clinics in Kuala Lumpur. Relevant data to this study on gestational week, maternal age and number of visits was analysed using SPSS version 16. All non-citizens comprising of individuals seeking employment opportunities, further education, accompanying their spouse and UNHCR refugees were included in this study.

Results: 2616 non-citizens were seen at 21 MCH clinics in Kuala Lumpur in 2013. Among the non-citizens visiting the clinics, 59.2% were Myanmar nationals. 56.4% mothers were coded with green tag, 17.1% with yellow tag and 1.7% with red tag. Late booking was seen among 10% of mothers. 6.8% came with unsure of dates. Average visit was 2.9 visits with 99.4% seen by registered nurses and 94.3% seen by the medical officer. Common risk factors seen were anaemia, gestational diabetes mellitus, pregnancy induced hypertension and unsure of dates.

Conclusion: Improving the maternal care of non-citizens is challenging as their nomadic movements with ‘pay out of pocket’ for healthcare services are the main reasons for not seeking early antenatal care.

Keywords: Antenatal care, Maternal and child health, refugee, foreigner, immigrant