Medical Journal of Malaysia

MJM, Vol 70 Supplement 1 September 2015

Factors associated with mortality among tuberculosis cases in North-East Malaysia

Zainurulazma MN*, Sarimah A*, Sharina D**, Arham MAB***, Nyi Naing N*

*Unit of Biostatistics & Research Methodology, School of Medical Sciences, USM, **Kelantan State Health Department, ***Universiti Malaysia Kelantan


Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is a common communicable disease in Malaysia and is one of the public health burdens to the Ministry of Health. This study was to determine the factors associated with the mortality among tuberculosis cases in North-East Malaysia

Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in North-East of Malaysia by reviewing TB records at the all hospitals and health clinics from 2010 to 2014. All socio-demographic, clinical characteristics and outcome of the cases were recorded.  A Multiple Logistic Regression was used to analyse the factors associated with the mortality outcome.

Results: A total of 4720 were reviewed. Approximately 15% of patients died during treatment. Majority of TB cases were male (66.8%). About 94% of them were Malay, 25.6% were diabetic patients, 41.0% smokers, 78.3% were having BCG scar and 91.9% were diagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis. About 56.0% patients were sputum smear positive and 14.8% were HIV positive. Significant factors associated with mortality among TB cases were age (Odds Ratio (OR) 1.041, 95%CI: 1.029-1.056), absence of BCG scar (OR1.67, 95% CI: 1.067-2.615), sputum smear positive (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.328-0.697), sputum culture positive (OR 2.15, 95% CI: 1.469-3.133), HIV Status (OR 13.36, 95% CI: 8.222-21.711). X-ray finding was also significant factor associated with mortality of Tuberculosis patients.

Conclusion: Increasing age, absence of BCG scar, sputum negative, culture positive, HIV positive and positive X-ray findings were the associated factors for mortality among tuberculosis cases. All these factors have to be taken into consideration in order to reduce the mortality among the tuberculosis cases.

Keywords: Tuberculosis, mortality, sputum smear, multiple logistic regression