Medical Journal of Malaysia

MJM, Vol 70 Supplement 1 September 2015

A case-control study on risk factors for HIV/AIDS among women in Sambas Regency, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

Norfazilah A, Nany Hairunisa, Azmawati MN

Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


Background: The number of women living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is increasing in Indonesia. These conditions indicate the feminisation of the HIV epidemic is happening in Indonesia. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with HIV/AIDS among women in Sambas Regency, West Kalimantan, Indonesia.

Methods: An unmatched case-control study was conducted among 90 women tested positive for HIV/AIDS (cases) and 90 women tested negative for HIV/AIDS (controls). Data was collected using medical records and questionnaires from June to August 2012, at community health centres in Sambas Regency, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Descriptive and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to examine the associated factors for HIV/AIDS.

Results: The mean age of the cases and control were 32.22 (standard deviation (SD) 8.12) and 33.72 (SD 9.38) years respectively. As compared to single women, being married (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) 5.09, 95% CI: 1.18, 21.95) or divorce/widowed (aOR 21.57, 95%CI: 4.53, 102.67) put these women at higher odds for HIV/AIDS. Being a housewife (aOR 4.18, 95%CI: 1.25, 13.94) and having poor knowledge about HIV/AIDS (aOR 7.38, 95%CI: 2.94, 18.55) also found to have higher odds for HIV/AIDS. Level of education, income, having more than one sexual partner and being a migrant did not show any association.

Conclusions: HIV/AIDS intervention programmes should increasingly be expanded beyond improving the knowledge on HIV/AIDS, which include skill-building programs for young women and housewives.

Keywords: HIV/AIDS, case-control, risk factors, West Kalimantan, Indonesia