Medical Journal of Malaysia

MJM, Vol 70 Supplement 1 September 2015

Prevalence of poor sleep quality and its correlates among secondary school teachers in Selangor, Malaysia: a cross-sectional study

Nor Asma Musa*, Moy Foong Ming*, Wong Li Ping*

*Julius Centre University of Malaya, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Malaya, Malaysia


Introduction: Sleep is an important physiological process and becoming a world-wide health concern. Teachers are among the highest profession that often report poor sleep quality due to high workload and increasing students’ academic demands. Few studies have examined the sleep quality of those employed in the education field. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and identified correlated factors of poor sleep quality among secondary school teachers in Selangor, Malaysia.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in ten education district in Selangor Malaysia. Multistage random-sampling procedures were used to enrol 1871 secondary school teachers into the study. A self-administered structured questionnaire including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) to measure sleep quality, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS 21) to screen for mental health, teaching characteristics, physical health and other relevant characteristics to sleep were collected.

 Results: Mean 95% CI of the PSQI global score was 5.45 (95% CI: 3.80, 7.09) points. The prevalence of poor sleep quality (total PSQI score ≥ 5) was 61% (1134). In the univariate analysis, total (hours) of teaching with extra class a day (odds ratio (OR) 1.063; 95% CI: 1.019-1.110), depression score (OR 1.090; 95% CI: 1.035-1.148), anxiety score (OR 1.090 ;95% CI: 1.075-1.106) and  stress score (OR 1.080; 95% CI: 1.063-1.097)  had statistically significant higher odds of poor sleep quality. Multivariate analysis showed that stress was the only significant correlate of poor sleep quality score among the participants.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that slightly over half of the secondary school teacher has poor sleep and PSQI global score was associated with stress. Little attention has been given to the sleep concerns of school personnel, and there is a need for further research. Comprehensive counter measures against poor sleep quality is strongly recommended.

Keywords: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, depression, Anxiety, Stress, Teachers, Malaysia.