Medical Journal of Malaysia

MJM, Vol 70 Supplement 1 September 2015

Current nutrient intake among Malaysia Adult: Finding from MANS 20

Ahmad Ali Zainuddin*, **

*Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam Selangor, **Institut for Public Health, Bangsar, Kuala Lumpur


Introduction: Information on dietary intake was collected using 24-hour diet recall, a widely used method to obtain quantitative dietary information of individuals in large epidemiological studies.

Methods: This survey was undertaken to determine the population dietary practices and adequacy. A total of 2,973 respondents took part in this survey, of which 1,378 were men and 1,595 were women.

Results: The daily median energy intake of Malaysia adults was 1466 kcal/day or 64% of the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI). The adults in East Malaysia zones had higher energy intake and RNI achievement (66%) compared to Peninsular counterparts (63%). Urban adults had higher energy intake and RNI achievement (66%) than their rural counterparts (62%). In most of the economic and socio-demographic group, women had lower median energy intake and per cent achievement of RNI than men. The median percentage of total energy contributed by macronutrient was 54% for carbohydrate, 15% protein and 29% fat. Contribution of energy by macronutrients was similar in both men and women. Intakes of selected micronutrients were also analysed. The median sodium intake among Malaysian adults was about 1935 mg/day. The median intake for calcium was 357 mg/day or 43% of the RNI. For all socio-demographic groups, the achievement of recommended level for calcium did not exceed 50%. The median intake of iron was about 9.9% mg/day with men (10.8 mg/day) having higher intake than women (9.0 mg/day). While men achieved more than 100% of RNI for iron, women satisfied only 52% of the recommended level. The median intake of vitamin C was about 39 mg/day or 56% of the recommended level. The median intake of vitamin A was about 480 µg/day or 88% of the recommended intake for vitamin A.

Conclusion: The study found that intake of energy among Malaysian adults fall short of the recommended intake. The intakes of major micronutrient studied were less than two thirds of the RNI. Calcium and iron were found to be most inadequate particularly among women. A nearly half of the studied population had under reported their energy intake, cautious interpretations of the current finding are needed.

Keywords: Nutrient intake, Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey